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  • 弟子規夏令營 | 傳統文化公益論壇 | 中華經典 | 弟子規網 | 公益網

    交易要講道理

    時間:2011-05-25 19:00來源:中國弟子規網 作者:弟子規 點擊:
    猶太人經商的歷史非常悠久。 但是,圣經時代,猶太人還處于農業社會,少有交易行為,所謂「商人」是一個陌生的詞語。當時,猶太人幾乎不做買賣,僅有簡單的商業道德,譬如斤兩

     

    猶太人經商的歷史非常悠久。

    但是,圣經時代,猶太人還處于農業社會,少有交易行為,所謂「商人」是一個陌生的詞語。當時,猶太人幾乎不做買賣,僅有簡單的商業道德,譬如斤兩公道,童叟無欺之類等等。但是,這些簡單的商業道德也體現了猶太人重視公平和「講道理」的交易準則。

    隨著社會上的商業興盛、交易活躍,《猶太法典》出現了,它對商業交易也做出了許多規定。拉比們基于在社會逐漸進步的前提下編纂《猶太法典》,將進步的社會描寫成商業極其鼎盛發達的社會。在法典中,拉比們花費了很多篇幅,談論有關經商之時應該遵守哪些道德的事情。

    在《猶太法典》中,商業交易成為一種特殊的原則,具有超乎一般生活領域的行為規范。這意味著即使是非常虔誠之人,也可根據「在商言商」的原則從事交易。

    但是,《猶太法典》里,拉比們探討的多是如何成為有道德的商人,而不是教導世人成為惟利是圖的大商賈。由此而來,猶太人形成了商人必須具備商業道德的傳統。

    在交易中,猶太人認為,縱使事先未獲任何保證,也有權利要求購買的商品具有良好的品質。去購物,就是意味購買沒有瑕疵的商品。就算商家在交易中,宣稱「貨物出門,概不退換」,一旦該商品確有瑕疵,買方仍然有權要求退貨。并且,商人們也得同意退貨。

    在猶太社會里惟一的例外是,賣方預先告知該項商品有點瑕疵,譬如賣驢子時事先說明這頭驢已有患病,這種情況下完成的交易,買方不得要求退貨。

    因此在《猶太法典》規定,賣方販賣具有瑕疵的商品時,必須事先向買方具體說明該項瑕疵才行。只有這樣,買方的權益方能獲得保障,避免遭到偽劣商品、賣方疏忽乃至故意詐欺等侵害。

    猶太人在交易中買賣是由兩項要件構成,一是支付貨款,或者相當于貨品的代價,二是移交貨品。這表示賣方有義務將該項貨品安全地移交買方手中,交易才算告成。此外作為商人必須確實持有該項貨品,否則不得從事買空賣空的行為,猶太人從頭至尾都在保護買方權益。

    在做生意過程中,猶太人很注意「交易要講道理」這一從商諍言,可以說,猶太商人是世界上最講道理的買賣人。其中所謂的道理,就是公平、不欺詐。

    猶太人在全世界各民族中能夠崛起,成為最會做生意最成功的商人,與他們的這一經商智慧——取信于人大有關系。

    ——摘錄自內蒙古人民出版社出版的《猶太人的智慧》

     

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